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Sexually transmitted infections (STI)

Sexually transmitted infections (STI)

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI), or Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) are generally acquired by sexual contact. The organisms that cause sexually transmitted diseases may pass from person to person in blood, semen, vaginal and other bodily fluids/secretions.

Sometimes these infections can be transmitted non-sexually, such as:

  • From mother to infant during pregnancy or childbirth
  • Through blood transfusions
  • Through needles

It is possible to contract sexually transmitted diseases from people who seem perfectly healthy, and who may not even be aware of the infection.


STI can have a range of signs and symptoms, including no symptoms. That is why they go unnoticed until complications occur or a partner is diagnosed. Signs and symptoms that may indicate an STI include:

  • Sores, itching or lumps in the genital area
  • Sores, itching or lumps in and around the mouth
  • Sores, itching or lumps in the rectal area
  • Pain or burning when you pass urine
  • Passing urine many times
  • Unusual or odd-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Discharge from the urethra
  • Unusual vaginal bleeding
  • Pain during sex
  • Bleeding during or after sex
  • Sore, swollen lumps, particularly in the groin but sometimes more widespread
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Lower backache
  • Fever
  • Rash over the trunk, hands or feet

Signs and symptoms may appear a few days after exposure, or it may even take years before you have any noticeable problems, depending on the type of infection.

Please remember: STDs don't always cause symptoms. So it is important to get regular check up to make sure you do not have the infection and to avoid long-term serious complications.


The most common organisams causing STIs are as below:

  • Bacteria
    • Chlamydia
    • Gonorrhea
    • Syphilis
  • Parasites
    • Trichomoniasis
    • Actinomyces
  • Viruses
    • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
    • Genital Herpes (HSV II)
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS
    • Hepatitis B Virus
    • Hepatitis C Virus
Effect on Your Life

In addition to the problems of bleeding, pain, vaginal discharge that seriously affect women’s lives, STIs can cause the following serious problems:

Transmission from mother to infant

Certain STIs — such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV and syphilis — can be passed from an infected mother to her child during pregnancy or delivery. STIs in infants can cause serious problems and may be fatal. All pregnant women should be screened for these infections and treated.


These include:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Infertility
  • Pregnancy complications
  • Eye inflammation
  • Arthritis
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Heart disease
  • Certain cancers, such as HPV-associated cervical and rectal cancers
Treatment Options

In STIs the best treatment is Prevention. Dr Salma Kayani provides detailed information on how to prevent these serious infections. However once you have been infected, the sooner you receive treatment, the better you will recover without the long-term complications. Once infection is confirmed, your partner will also need screening and treatment.

Because many people in the early stages of an STI experience no symptoms, screening for STIs is important in preventing complications.

Dr Salma Kayani provides a state-of-the-art screening and evidence-based treatment service to ensure you remain sexually healthy and infection free.

Training, Skill and Experience of Dr Salma Kayani

Consultant Dr (Mrs) Salma Kayani has been formally trained and certified by the Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH), of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologist (London, UK) in the expert management of this very important and sensitive issue.

She has been certified since (2002). Dr (Mrs) Salma Kayani undergoes regular re-certification by the Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare (UK) every five years, in order to make sure that she is up-to-date and is providing the best evidence-based care to her patients.